Professor (Research)
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Postal Address: Department of Civil and
  Environmental Engineering,
  National University of Singapore
  1 Engineering Drive 2, E1A 07-03
  Singapore 117576
Tel: (65) 651 61315
Office: E2-04-07


Dr. Martin Reinhard is an environmental chemist who is interested in the analysis and fate of organic substances in the environment and in treatment systems. Before joining the NUS faculty, Dr. Reinhard was Professor for Research at Stanford University where he studied groundwater remediation and water recycling technologies. His current research is concerned with the occurrence, fate and treatment of organic micro-constituents in the urban water cycle. He develops insight into the mechanisms of environmental contaminant behavior by conducting field and related model studies. Results of his research have helped to advance the development of technologies for treating water contaminated with chlorinated solvents and gasoline by natural and engineered processes.


  • Diploma in Chemistry, ETH-Zürich, 1971. Thesis topic: Calorimetric Determination of Stability Constants of Alkaline Cations and Antibiotics.
  • Dr. Sc. Techn. (Ph.D.), ETH-Zürich, 1977. Thesis topic: Formation of Organochlorine Compounds as By-Products of Water Chlorination.

Positions Held

  • 2013-present Visiting Research Professor, CEE Dept., NUS, Singapore.
  • 1989-2012 Professor for Research, CEE Dept., Stanford University, Stanford, California.
  • 1984-1989 Assoc. Professor for Research, Environmental Engineering and Science, Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University.
  • 1979-1984 Senior Research Associate, Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University.
  • 1982-1983 Visiting Scholar, Laboratory of Inorganic, Analytical and Physical Chemistry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
  • 1976-1979 Research Associate, Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University.
  • 1972-1976 Graduate Research Assistant, EAWAG-ETH-Zürich, Switzerland

Honours & Awards

  • 1991 Visiting Professor, ETH-Zürich, (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zürich, Switzerland.
  • 1994 Faculty Advisor Award, (CH2M-Hill and the Association of Environmental Engineering Professors).
  • 1997 Jack Edward McKee Medal sponsored by the Water Environment Federation for professional achievement in groundwater protection, restoration, and sustainable use.
  • 2002 Highly Cited in Ecology and the Environment.
  • 2005 SAE Wright Brothers Medal
  • 2005 SAE Arch T. Colwell Merit Award
  • 2008 Highly Cited in Engineering
  • 2012 Humboldt Research Award

Courses taught

  • Chemical Kinetics of Environmental Processes
  • Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry
  • Proposal Writing
  • Teaching Science Literacy
  • Introduction into Membrane Technology
  • Fate and transport of organic contaminants

Research Interests

  • Chemical and biological transformation of organic compounds in engineered and natural systems
  • Sorption of organic compounds onto natural solids
  • Applications of membrane in water reuse applications
  • Analysis of trace contaminants using mass spectrometry

Selected Publications

Peer Reviewed Publications (2009-1013)

  1. Nguyen, V.T., M. Reinhard, and K.Y.H. Gin, “Rate Laws and Kinetic Modeling of N-Ethyl Perfluorooctane Sulfonamidoethanol Transformation by Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution,” Water Research, 47, 2241-2250 (2013).
  2. Xu, P., Tzahi Cath, T.Y., Robertson, A.P., Reinhard, M., Leckie, J.O., Drewes, J.E., “Critical Review of Desalination Concentrate Management, Treatment and Beneficial Use,” Environmental Engineering Science, 30, 502-514 (2013).
  3. Do, V.T., C. Y. Y.Tang, M. Reinhard, J. O. Leckie, “Effects of Chlorine Exposure Conditions on Physiochemical Properties and Performance of a Polyamide Membrane-Mechanisms and Implications,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 13184-13192 (2012).
  4. Do, V.T., C.Y. Tang, M. Reinhard, and J.O. Leckie. “Degradation of Polyamide Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Hypochlorite," Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 852-859 (2012).
  5. Chaplin, B.P., M. Reinhard, W.F. Schneider, C. Schüth, J.R. Shapley, T.J. Strathmann, C.J. Werth, “A Critical Review of Pd-Based Catalytic Treatment of Priority Contaminants in Water,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 3655-3670 (2012).
  6. Ke, J., K.Y.H. Gin, L.H. Tan, M. Reinhard. “Fate of Endocrine Disrupting and Pharmaceutically Active Substances in Sand Columns Fed With Secondary Effluent,” J. Environmental Engineering ASCE, 10 1067-1076 (2012).
  7. Plumlee, M.H., Gurr, C.J., and M. Reinhard, “Recycled Water for Stream Flow Augmentation: Benefits, Challenges, and the Presence of Wastewater-Derived Organic Compounds,” J. Env. Manag., 438, 541-548 (2012).
  8. Nguyen, V.T., K.Y.H. Gin, M. Reinhard, and C. Liu, “Occurrence, Fate, and Fluxes of Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in an Urban Catchment: Marina Reservoir, Singapore,” Water Sci. Technol., 66, 2439-2446 (2012).
  9. Do, V. T., C. Y. Y. Tang, M. Reinhard and J. O. Leckie (2012). "Effects Of Hypochlorous Acid Exposure on the Rejection of Salt, Polyethylene Glycols, Boron And Arsenic(V) by Nanofiltration And Reverse Osmosis Membranes," Water Research, 46, 5217-5223 (2012).
  10. Louie, J.S., I. Pinnau, and M. Reinhard, “Effects of Surface Coating Process Conditions on the Water Permeation and Salt Rejection Properties of Composite Polyamide Reverse Osmosis Membrane,” J. Membrane Sci., 367, 249-255 (2011).
  11. Xu, Y., F. Luo, A. Pal, K.Y.H. Gin, and M. Reinhard. “Occurrence of Emerging Organic Contaminants in a Tropical Urban Catchment in Singapore,” Chemosphere, 83, 963-969 (2011).
  12. Xu, Y., A. Pal, M. Reinhard, and K.Y.H. Gin, "Photodegradation Kinetics of p-tert-Octylphenol, 4-tert-Octylphenoxy-acetic Acid and Ibuprofen under Simulated Solar Conditions in Surface Water," Chemosphere, 83, 963-969 (2011).
  13. Liu, C.H; K.Y.H. Gin, V.W.C. Chang, B.P.L. Goh, and M. Reinhard, “Novel Perspectives on the Bioaccumulation of PFCs - the Concentration DSependency,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 9758-9764 (2011).
  14. Li, Y.M., J. Montgomery-Brown, and M. Reinhard, “Biotransformation of Halogenated Nonylphenols with Sphingobium Xenophagum Bayram and a NP-degrading Soil Enrichment Culture,” Arch. Environ. Cont. Tox., 60, 212-219 (2011).
  15. Dougherty, J.A., P.W., Swarzenski, R.S. Dinicola, and M. Reinhard, “Occurrence of Herbicides and Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Surface Water and Groundwater around Liberty Bay, Puget Sound, Washington,” J. Environ. Quality, 39, 1173-1180 (2010).
  16. Steinle-Darling, E. Litwiller, and M. Reinhard, “Effects of Sorption on the Rejection of Trace Organic Contaminants During Nanofiltration,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 2592-2598 (2010).
  17. Cheng, H. and M. Reinhard, “In-line Gas Chromatographic Apparatus for Measuring the Hydrophobic Micropore Volume (HMV) and Contaminant Transformation in Mineral Micropores,” J. Hazardous Materials, 179, 596-603 (2010).
  18. Pacheco, F., I. Pinnau, M. Reinhard, and J.O. Leckie, “Characterization of Isolated Polyamide Thin Films of RO and NF Membranes Using Novel TEM Techniques Characterization of Isolated Polyamide Thin Films of RO and NF Membranes Using Novel TEM Techniques.” J. Membrane Sci., 358, 51-59 (2010).
  19. Pal A., K.Y.-H. Gin, A.Y.-C. Lin, and M. Reinhard. “Impacts of Emerging Organic Contaminants on Freshwater Resources: Review of Recent Occurrences, Sources, Fate and Effects.” Science of the Total Environment., 408, 6062-6069, (2010).
  20. Nguyen, V.T., M. Reinhard, and Y-.H. K., Gin, “Occurrence and Source Characterization of Perfluorochemicals in an Urban Watershed,” Chemosphere. 82, 1277-1285 (2010).
  21. Chua, L.H.C., M.C.M., Leong, E.Y.M., Lo, M. Reinhard, A.P. Robertson, T.T. Lim, E.B. Shuy, and S.K. Tan, “Controlled Field Studies on Soil Aquifer Treatment in a Constructed Coastal Sandfill,” Water Science & Technology, 60, 1283-1293 (2009).
  22. Plumlee, M.H, K. McNeill, and M. Reinhard, “Indirect Photolysis of Perfluorochemicals: Hydroxyl Radical-Initiated Oxidation of N-Ethyl Perfluorooctane Sulfonamido Acetate (N-EtFOSAA) and Other Perfluoroalkanesulfonamides,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 3662-3668 (2009).

Last Updated on 23 January 2014, by Department of Civil and Environmental Enginering